Breast Disease:The Breast Journal, Volume 4, Number 4, 1998, 245-251 
Infrared Imaging of the Breast: Initial Reappraisal Using High-Resolution Digital Technology in 100 Successive Cases of Stage I and II Breast Cancer. 
Department of Oncology, St. Mary’s Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Department of Radiotherapy, London Cancer Center, London, Ontario; and Ville Marie Breast and Oncology Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 
Our initial experience would suggest that, when done concomitantly with clinical exam and mammography, high-resolution digital infrared imaging can provide additional safe, practical, and objective information. Our initial reappraisal would also suggest that infrared imaging, based more on process than structural changes and requiring neither contact, compression, radiation nor venous access, can provide pertinent and practical complementary information to both clinical exam and mammography, our current primary basic detection modalities.

Breast Cancer 2000 Apr 25;7(2):142-148 
Skin Reactions after Breast-conserving Therapy and Prediction of Late Complications Using Physiological Functions. 
Sekine H, Kobayashi M, Honda C, Aoki M, Nakagawa M, Kanehira C; Department of Radiology, Division of Radiotherapy, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan. 
BACKGROUND: The temperature of the skin remains elevated long after breast-conserving treatment with irradiation, perhaps because evaporative cooling is impaired. We investigated physiological changes of the irradiated skin and reevaluated the radiosensitivity of sweat glands on a functional basis to determine whether severe complications can be predicted. METHODS: Breast and axillary skin temperatures were measured with thermography and sweat production in response to local thermal stimuli was measured on the basis of changes in electrical skin resistance with a bridge circuit in 45 women before, during, and after breast irradiation for breast cancer. RESULTS: Breast and axillary temperatures were significantly increased after irradiation. In response to cutaneous thermal stimuli, the electric skin resistance of nonirradiated areas decreased significantly because of sweating, but that of irradiated areas was unchanged. CONCLUSION: Impairment of sweating may play an important role in skin damage after irradiation. Although glandular tissue is not usually radiosensitive, the results of our functional assessment suggest that sweat glands are more radiosensitive than expected.

Int J Fertil Womens Med 2001 Sep-Oct;46(5):238-47 
Circadian rhythm chaos: a new breast cancer marker. 
Keith LG, Oleszczuk JJ, Laguens M.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 
The most disappointing aspect of breast cancer treatment as a public health issue has been the failure of screening to improve mortality figures. Since treatment of late-stage cancer has indeed advanced, mortality can only be decreased by improving the rate of early diagnosis. From the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s, it was expected that thermography would hold the key to breast cancer detection, as surface temperature increases overlying malignant tumors had been demonstrated by thermographic imaging. Unfortunately, detection of the 1-3 degrees C thermal differences failed to bear out its promise in early identification of cancer. In the intervening two-and-a-half decades, three new factors have emerged: it is now apparent that breast cancer has a lengthy genesis; a long-established tumor-even one of a certain minimum size-induces increased arterial/capillary vascularity in its vicinity; and thermal variations that characterize tissue metabolism are circadian (“about 24 hours”) in periodicity. This paper reviews the evidence for a connection between disturbances of circadian rhythms and breast cancer. Furthermore, a scheme is proposed in which circadian rhythm “chaos” is taken as a signal of high risk for breast cancer even in the absence of mammographic evidence of neoplasm or a palpable tumor. Recent studies along this line suggest that an abnormal thermal sign, in the light of our present knowledge of breast cancer, is ten times as important an indication as is family history data.

J Biomech Eng. 2004 Apr;126(2):204-11. 
Effect of forced convection on the skin thermal expression of breast cancer. 
Hu L, Gupta A, Gore JP, Xu LX.; School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. 
A bioheat-transfer-based numerical model was utilized to study the energy balance in healthy and malignant breasts subjected to forced convection in a wind tunnel. Steady-state temperature distributions on the skin surface of the breasts were obtained by numerically solving the conjugate heat transfer problem. Parametric studies on the influences of the airflow on the skin thermal expression of tumors were performed. It was found that the presence of tumor may not be clearly shown due to the irregularities of the skin temperature distribution induced by the airflow field. Nevertheless, image subtraction techniques could be employed to eliminate the effects of the flow field and thermal noise and significantly improve the thermal signature of the tumor on the skin surface. Inclusion of the possible skin vascular response to cold stress caused by the airflow further enhances the signal, especially for deeply embedded tumors that otherwise may not be detectable.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 Oct;93(1-2):245-51. 
Infrared thermography for examination of skin temperature in the dorsal hand of office workers. 
Gold JE, Cherniack M, Buchholz B. Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, MA 01854, Lowell, USA,
Reduced blood flow may contribute to the pathophysiology of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD), such as tendinitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. The study objective was to characterize potential differences in cutaneous temperature, among three groups of office workers assessed by dynamic thermography following a 9-min typing challenge: those with UEMSD, with ( n=6) or without ( n=10) cold hands exacerbated by keyboard use, and control subjects ( n=12). Temperature images of the metacarpal region of the dorsal hand were obtained 1 min before typing, and during three 2-min sample periods [0-2 min (early), 3-5 min (middle), and 8-10 min (late)] after typing. Mean temperature increased from baseline levels immediately after typing by a similar magnitude, 0.7 (0.3) degrees C in controls and 0.6 (0.2) degrees C in UEMSD cases without cold hands, but only by 0.1 (0.3) degrees C in those with cold hands. Using paired t-tests for within group comparisons of mean dorsal temperature between successive imaging periods, three patterns of temperature change were apparent during 10 min following typing. Controls further increased mean temperature by 0.1 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.001) at 3-5 min post-typing before a late temperature decline of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.04), while cases without cold hands showed no change from initial post-typing mean temperature rise during middle or late periods. In contrast, subjects with keyboard-induced cold hands had no change from initial post-typing temperature until a decrease at the late period of -0.3 degrees C ( t-test, P=0.06). Infrared thermography appears to distinguish between the three groups of subjects, with keyboard-induced cold hand symptoms presumably due, at least partially, to reduced blood flow.

Dent Mater J. 2003 Dec;22(4):436-43. 
Application of thermography in dentistry–visualization of temperature distribution on oral tissues. 
Komoriyama M, Nomoto R, Tanaka R, Hosoya N, Gomi K, Iino F, Yashima A, Takayama Y, Tsuruta M, Tokiwa H, Kawasaki K, Arai T, Hosoi T, Hirashita A, Hirano S.; Department of Dental Engineering, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8501, Japan. 
The purpose of this study was to devise and propose appropriate conditions for the photographing of thermal images in the oral cavity and to evaluate which thermography techniques can be applied to dentistry by evaluating the differences in temperature among oral tissues. Thermal images of oral cavities of 20 volunteers in normal oral condition were taken according to the guidelines of the Japanese Society of Thermography, with five added items for oral observation. The use of a mirror made it possible to take thermal images of the posterior portion or palate. Teeth, free gingiva, attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa were identified on thermal images. There were differences in temperature between teeth, free gingiva, attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa. These were nearly in agreement with the anatomical view. Thermography need no longer be restricted to the anterior portion using a mirror, and can now be applied to the dental region.


Herz. 2003 Sep;28(6):505-12. 
Intracoronary thermography. 
Schmermund A, Rodermann J, Erbel R. Department of Cardiology, University Clinic Essen , Germany . Axel. 
Arteriosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory processes play a role in the initiation of plaque development and the early stages of the disease as well as in complex plaques and complications such as intraarterial thrombosis. A method to detect inflammation in coronary arteries has the potential to characterize both local and systemic activation of arteriosclerotic plaque disease. It could help to define in more detail what constitutes a vulnerable plaque or vulnerable vessel and thus improve the prediction of acute coronary syndromes. Intracoronary thermography records a cardinal sign of inflammation. Heat is probably produced by (activated) macrophages. Experimental work has suggested that thermal heterogeneity is present in arteriosclerotic plaques and that increased temperature is found at the site of inflammatory cellular-macrophage-infiltration. Preliminary experience in patients undergoing coronary angiography has demonstrated that it is safe and feasible to perform intracoronary thermography using various systems. A graded relationship between thermal heterogeneity and clinical symptoms has been reported, with the greatest temperature elevation in acute myocardial infarction. Increases in thermal heterogeneity appeared to be associated with a comparably unfavorable long-term prognosis. Intracoronary thermography has the potential to provide insights into location and extent of inflammation as well as the prognostic consequences. Currently, this novel method and the underlying concepts are extensively evaluated.

Rev Neurol 1999 Mar 16-31;28(6):535-43 
[Neurophysiological study of thin myelinated and unmyelinated fibers]. [Article in Spanish] Espinosa ML, Santiago S, Guzman JJ, Prieto J, Ferrer T; Laboratorio de SNA, Hospital General La Paz, Madrid, Espana.
INTRODUCTION: Standard neurophysiological techniques evaluate thick myelinated fibers. Yet, peripheral nerves are equally composed of thin myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. The latter are responsible for autonomic function as well as temperature and pain perception. DEVELOPMENT: Microneurographic studies are restricted to investigation laboratories. Since the techniques are complex and invasive, their performance is still poor for clinical purposes and some of the components to be analyzed, such as cardiovagal, cannot be directly recorded. The clinical need to evaluate the functions regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) had led to devising a series of tests which, in most cases, rely on reflex responses evoked by already known standardize stimuli. The battery chosen has to be non invasive, reproducible, specific, providing relevant data to the investigated function, with a readily available technology, which has to be managed being aware of the physiological and pathological factors that might bear an influence on the results. The recent development of heart rate blood pressure power spectral analysis, provides a new interesting insight for quantification of ANS abnormalities. The study of thermography and thermometry of body surface brings forward evidence on the activity of other thin and unmyelinated fibers components of the peripheral nerve spectrum. CONCLUSION: The adequate management of the above mentioned tests gives rise to a more extensive and appropriate knowledge of the whole peripheral nerve fiber spectrum.

Eur J Orthod 1999 Apr;21(2):111-8 
Thermal image analysis of electrothermal debonding of ceramic brackets: an in vitro study. 
Cummings M, Biagioni P, Lamey PJ, Burden DJ; Division of Orthodontics, School of Clinical Dentistry, Queen’s University of Belfast, UK. 
This study used modern thermal imaging techniques to investigate the temperature rise induced at the pulpal well during thermal debonding of ceramic brackets. Ceramic brackets were debonded from vertically sectioned premolar teeth using an electrothermal debonding unit. Ten teeth were debonded at the end of a single 3-second heating cycle. For a further group of 10 teeth, the bracket and heating element were left in contact with the tooth during the 3-second heating cycle and the 6-second cooling cycle. The average pulpal wall temperature increase for the teeth debonded at the end of the 3-second heating cycle was 16.8 degrees C. When the heating element and bracket remained in contact with the tooth during the 6-second cooling cycle an average temperature increase of 45.6 degrees C was recorded.

Dentomaxillofac Radiol 1998 Mar;27(2):68-74 
Thermology and facial telethermography: Part II. Current and future clinical applications in dentistry. 
Gratt BM, Anbar M Section of Oral Radiology, UCLA School of Dentistry 90095-1668, USA. 
Selected clinical applications using thermal imaging as an aid in dentistry are reviewed. Facial skin temperature can easily be measured in a clinical setting, without direct skin contact, by monitoring the emitted infrared radiation. This is the basis of static area telethermography (SAT) and dynamic area telethermography (DAT). SAT has recently been shown to be of help to the dentist in (1) the diagnosis of chronic orofacial pain, (2) as a unique tool in assessment of TMJ disorders, (3) as an aid in assessment of inferior alveolar nerve deficit, and (4) as a promising research tool. DAT, recently made possible by advances in computing technology combined with advanced infrared sensor technology, extracts quantitative information about hemodynamic processes from hundreds to thousands of digital thermal images of the affected facial areas, measured and collected within less than 3 min. DAT has promise of offering a better insight into aberrations of the neuronal control of facial skin perfusion and aiding our understanding of the correlation between orofacial pain and facial thermal abnormalities. This promising new insight may help in the management of orofacial pain.

Deep Vein Thrombosis: 
Proceedings – 19th International Conference – IEEE/EMBS Oct. 30-Nov. 2, 1997 Chicago , IL 
Is DVT Excluded by Normal Thermal Imaging? – An Outcome Study of 700 Cases. 
Harding, J. Richard; Barnes, Kathryn M.; Department of Clinical Radiology, St Woolos Hospital, Glan Hafren NHS Trust, Newport, Gwent, U.K. 
In view of the many advantages compared with venography or Doppler ultrasound, and the ability to avoid the necessity for over one third of these investigations, thermal imaging should be considered the initial investigation of choice in clinically suspected DVT, proceeding to venography or Doppler ultrasound only when thermal imaging is positive. There are risks and disadvantages to the most commonly utilised conventional tests for DVT, over one third of which examinations can be avoided by performing thermal imaging as the initial investigation, which excludes DVT when normal. This outcome study followed up patients with clinically suspected DVT who were not further investigated or treated following normal thermal imaging, and showed that no patients developed PE (pulmonary embolism) following normal thermography with no further investigation for DVT and withholding of anticoagulant therapy.